# Pentacube Oddities with Orthogonal Rotary Symmetry

## Introduction

A pentacube is a solid made of five cubes joined face to face. An oddity (or Sillke Figure) is a figure with even symmetry formed by an odd number of copies of a polyform.

In 1996, Torsten Sillke reported having found a point-symmetric arrangement of 17 F pentacubes. He asked whether 17 is the least such odd number, and more generally whether an odd number of copies of a polycube can be arranged to achieve any given symmetry. This was the earliest known mention of polyform oddities.

Polycubes have 33 symmetry classes (including asymmetry), and 31 of them have even order. That is too many to show here. Instead I show only oddities with orthogonal rotary symmetry. In all pictures, the cross-sections are shown from top to bottom. If you find a smaller solution, please write.

For other classes of symmetry, see:

• Pentacube Oddities with Orthogonal Mirror Symmetry
• Pentacube Oddities with Diagonal Mirror Symmetry
• Pentacube Oddities with Plane Diagonal Rotary Symmetry
• Pentacube Oddities with Inverse Symmetry
• Pentacube Oddities with 4-Rotary Symmetry
• Pentacube Oddities with Dual Orthogonal Mirror Symmetry
• Pentacube Oddities with Dual Diagonal Mirror Symmetry
• Pentacube Oddities with Full Symmetry
• ## Orthogonal Rotary Symmetry

Orthogonal rotary symmetry is the symmetry of 180° rotation around an axis parallel to some edges of the cells.

The smallest example of a polycube with orthogonal 180° rotational symmetry and no stronger symmetry is this hexacube, found by W. F. Lunnon:

### Achiral Pentacubes

The solutions for pentacubes I, T, U, X and Z are trivial. Those pentacubes already have orthogonal rotary symmetry.

The solutions for pentacubes F and W are minimal orthogonal mirror oddities for the corresponding pentominoes.

### Chiral, Allowing Reflection

Last revised 2023-02-17.

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Col. George Sicherman [ HOME | MAIL ]